What is the National Register Of Citizens (NRC)?

The National Register of Citizens (NRC) is a register of all citizen whose creation is mandated by the Citizenship Act, 1955 as amended in 2003. It has been implemented for the state of Assam between 2013-14. The Government plan to implement it for the rest of INDIA in 2021.

Before we will start this topic, first we all know that what is NRC and why we will need to implement NRC in the rest of India?


The NATIONAL REGISTER OF CITIZENS (NRC) is a process that identified illegal immigrants from other countries. At present, only Assam has such a register. The exercise may be extended to other the states as well. Nagaland is already creating a similar DATABASE known as the Register of Indigenous Inhabitants. The center is planning to create a National Population Register (NPR), which will contain demographic and bio-metric details of citizens.

NRC in Assam


Assam, being a border state with unique problems of illegal immigration, and NRC for the state was created in 1951 based on the 1951 census data. But it was not maintained afterward. In 1983, the illegal Migrants (Determination by Tribunal) Act was passed by the Parliament creating a separate tribunal process for identifying illegal migrants in Assam. The Supreme Court of India struck it done as unconstitutional in 2005, after which the Government of India agreed to update Assam NRC.

Following unsatisfactory progress on the update process over a decade, Supreme Court started directing and monitoring the process in 2013. The final update NRC from Assam, published 31 August 2019, contained 31 million names out of 33 million populations, leaving out 1.9 million applicants. The 1.9 millions resident who were not on the list, and were in danger of losing their Citizenship. Many of those affected were Bengali Hindu, who constitute a major voter base for the BJP. After the completion of the Assam NRC exercise, BJP did not find the result, meeting its expectation. BJP believed that several legitimate citizens were excluded while illegal migrants were included“. The register was created because illegal migration from Bangladesh has long been a concern in Assam. The Amendment of the 1955 Citizenship Act, in part helps to protect Non- Muslims who are not in the register and face arrest or deportation.

The ruling Government of Bharatiya Janata Party has promised to implement the NRC for all of INDIA, In Its election manifesto and during its speeches while campaigning for the 2019 General Election. On 19 November 2019, Home Minister Amit Shah declared in the Rajya Sabha of the Indian Parliament that NRC will be implemented throughout the country.

National Population Register

Now the one question will begin that is NRC and NPR are similar or they are both The National Population Register (NPR) is a Register of the usual residents of the country. it is being prepared at the local Village/ sub-Town, sub-District, District, State and National level under the provision of the Citizenship Act 1955 and the Citizenship (Registration of Citizens and Issue of National Identity Cards) Rules, 2003. It is mandatory for every usual resident of INDIA to register in the NPR. A usual resident is defined for the purpose of NPR as a person who has resided in a local area for the past 6 months or more or a person who intends to reside in that area for the next 6 months and more.

The objective of the NPR is to create a comprehensive identity database of every usual resident in the country. The database would contain demographic as well as bio metric particulars.

Also read:- CAB (Citizenship Amendment Bill, 2019)

Demographic Particular

The following demographic details of every individual are required for every usual resident:

  • Name of person
  • Relationship to a head of household
  • Father’s name
  • Mother’s name
  • spouse’s name (if married)
  • Sex
  • Date of birth
  • Marital status
  • Place of birth
  • Nationality (as declared)
  • Present address of usual residence
  • Duration of stay at present address
  • Permanent residential address
  • Occupation/ Activity
  • Educational qualification

Present Status

The data for the National Population Register was collected in 2010 along with the house listing phase of the Census of INDIA 2011. The updation of this data was done during 2015 by conducting door to door survey. The digitization of the update information has been completed. Now it has been decided to update the National Population Register along with the house listing phase of census 2021 from April to September 2020 in all the States/UT’s except Assam. Gazette notification to this effect has already published by the central government.


On 24 December 2019, the Union Cabinet approved 3,942 crores for updating the National population register (NPR), one of the first steps in implementing the NRC. The NPR is scheduled to take place in April 2020 throughout India except for Assam.

P.M. Narendra Modi on 22 December 2019 said,” There has been no discussion on NRC anywhere. We will only have to implement it in Assam to follow Supreme Court directives.” The CPM leader Parkas Karat called it “disinformation” by the government. Karat clarified that the NPR was the first step of the NRC process. On 31st July 2019, the Registrar General of Citizen Registration had issued the notification to prepare and update the NPR. The timeline for this was announced to be between 1st April 2020 and 30th September 2020. As per the NPR exercise, an enumeration will carried out, throughout the country except for Assam by visiting every house for collection of information relating to all persons who are usually residing within the jurisdiction of the Local Registrar. According to the procedure announced through the citizenship (Registration of Citizens and Issue of National Identity Cards) Rules 2003, the list of NPR will undergo due to verification and it will be form the basis of the local register of Indian citizens.

Detention Centers

According to section 3(2) (C) of the Foreigners Act, 1946, the central Government can Deport people of foreign countries who are staying illegally in India.

In anticipation of the possible requirement to house a large number of illegal foreigners who may be declared as such by the final National Register of citizenship of India and the Foreigners’ Tribunals, the government is building several detention camps throughout India. One of the first detention centers had come up in Assam during the tenure of the Congress government in 2008. In 2014, the center had told all the states to set up at least one detention center for illegal immigrants so as not mix them up with jail inmates.

so, here are the some list of detention centers.

  • Assam Detention Center:- The first detention center in Assam came up in 2008, when the Indian National Congress was in power in the state, under orders of the court. In 2011 the congress government built three more camps in the region. The government of the state, of Assam, is constructing ten more detention camps besides 6 already place. The first such new exclusive detention camp is under construction in the district of goal-para in lower Assam at cost of around 460 million and a capacity to hold 3000 persons. The detention center will cover approximately 2,88,00 square feet (about the size of seven football grounds) is planned to have fifteen stories. The detention center is planned to be ready by December 2019.
  • Maharashtra Detention Center:- It is being constructed at Nerul in Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra in a 1.2-hectare plot of land.
  • Punjab Detention Center:- It is currently being built in Goindwal Sahib in the TARN TARAN district and is planned for completion in Mat 2020. As of 2019, the foreigners are kept in a separate enclosure at Central Jail in Amritsar.
  • Delhi Detention Center:- It is spread over three locations in Delhi to hold foreigners waiting for deportation. One of the centers at Lampur id being operated under the Foreigners Regional Registration Office (FRRO). The Special Branch of Delhi Police supervises, the ward holding the Pakistanis, while people of the other Nationalities are under the watch of the FRRO. FRRO and Delhi Police both work under the Central Home Ministry.
  • Rajasthan Detention Center:- It is located on the campus of the Central Jail in Alwar.
  • Goa Detention Center:- It is at Mapusa was opened for foreigners in May 2019.
  • Karnataka Detention Center:- It is under construction at Sondekoppa in Nelamangala located 40km from Bangalore. It is planned to be operational from 1 January 2020. The center has 10-feet high walls, barbed wires with watchtowers in two corners of the compound.

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